First Nations: Historic Resources and Activism Links

Aboriginal history – general

Dr Gary Foley's 'The Koori History Website Project'. A lifetime of activism - information, press cuttings and photo collecting at http://www.kooriweb.org/

Aboriginal History, (1977– ), peer-reviewed academic journal, Australian National University. Details at http://www.aboriginalhistory.org/

Attwood, Bain 2005, Telling the Truth About Aboriginal History, Allen & Unwin

Cahir, Fred 2012, Black Gold: Aboriginal People on the Goldfields of Victoria, 1850–1870, Aboriginal History Monograph 25, ANU E Press

Critchett, Jan 1980, Our Land Till We Die: A History of the Framlingham Aborigines, Warrnambool Institute Press, Warrnambool

Felton, Heather 1989–91, Living with the Land: Aborigines in Tasmania, Department of the Education and the Arts, Hobart

Flannery, Tim 2012 ed., Watkin Tench 1788, Text Publishing, Melbourne
A reproduction of Tench's 1789 third edition of the Expedition and 1793 edition of the Settlement that include early descriptions of and narratives about Aboriginal people in the colony of New South Wales.

Gammage, Bill 2011, The Biggest Estate on Earth: How Aborigines Made Australia, Allen & Unwin, Sydney

Horton, David 1994, Encyclopaedia of Aboriginal Australia: Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander History, Society and Culture, Vol. 1 A–L, Aboriginal Studies Press, Canberra

–––1994, Encyclopaedia of Aboriginal Australia: Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander History, Society and Culture, Vol. 2 M–Z, Aboriginal Studies Press, Canberra
Although these two volumes were published in 1994, are to some extent out of date and omit certain important people and topics, they provide a starting point for further research.

Johnson, Murray and Ian McFarlane 2015, Van Diemen's Land: An Aboriginal History, NewSouth Publishing, Sydney
National Library of Australia Overview: 'The History of Aborigines in Van Diemen's Land is long. The first Tasmanians lived in isolation for as many as 300 generations after the flooding of Bass Strait. Their struggle against almost insurmountable odds is one worthy of respect and admiration, not to mention serious attention. This broad-ranging book is a comprehensive and critical account of that epic survival up to the present day. Starting from antiquity, the book examines the devastating arrival of Europeans and subsequent colonisation, warfare and exile. It emphasises the regionalism and separateness, a consistent feature of Aboriginal life since time immemorial that has led to the distinct identities we see in the present, including the unique place of the islanders in Bass Strait. Carefully researched, using the findings of archaeologists and extensive documentary evidence, some only recently uncovered, this important book fills a long-time gap in Tasmanian history.'

Lipsky, Sam 1965, ‘The Freedom Riders,’ The Bulletin, 20 February 1965, p. 21–24

Manne, Robert ed. 2003, Whitewash: on Keith Windshuttle’s Fabrication of Aboriginal History, Black Inc. Agenda, Melbourne

Manne, Robert 2009, ‘Comment: The History Wars,’ The Monthly, November 2009, accessed online from http://www.themonthly.com.au/nation-reviewed-robert-manne-comment-histor... on 17 April 2012

Perkins, Rachel and Marcia Langton eds. 2008, First Australians: an illustrated history, The Miegunyah Press (Book and video available)

Presland, Gary 1994, Aboriginal Melbourne: the lost land of the Kulin people, McPhee Gribble

Reynolds, Henry 1989, Dispossession: Black Australians and White Invaders, Allen & Unwin

Reynolds, Henry 1990, With the White People: The crucial role of Aborigines in the exploration and development of Australia, Penguin Books

Reynolds, Henry 1998, This Whispering in Our Hearts, Allen & Unwin

Reynolds, Henry 2012, A History of Tasmania, Cambridge University Press
Charts the history of Tasmania from the arrival of early European maritime expeditions in 1642,1772 and later in 1802. Focuses on the meetings of Aboriginal people and invaders and the effects of these encounters.

Reynolds, Henry 2013, Forgotten War, NewSouth Publishing, Sydney

Richards, Jonathan 2008, The Secret War: A True History of Queensland's Native Police, University of Queensland Press

Ryan, Lyndall 1981, The Aboriginal Tasmanians, University of Queensland Press

Ryan, Lyndall 2012, Tasmanian Aborigines: A history since 1803, Allen & Unwin
(An updated study of the resistance to colonial settler activism and survival of the Tasmanian Aborigines)

Windshuttle, Keith 2002, The Fabrication of Aboriginal History, Volume One, Van Diemen’s Land 1803–1847, Macleay Press, Sydney

Aboriginal history websites

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A short Aboriginal history at http://www.personally-selected-aboriginal-art.com/aboriginal-history.html

Australian Aboriginal history timeline at http://www.creativespirits.info/aboriginalculture/history/aboriginal-his...

Day of Mourning and Protest Aborigines Conference
, 75th Anniversary, Australian Institute of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Studies (AIATSIS) at http://www.aiatsis.gov.au/collections/exhibitions/dayofmourning/dayofmou...

Frontier Education, a website hosted by the Australian Broadcasting Corporation, designed to complement the Frontier online website, at http://www.abc.net.au/frontier/education/
This exploration of Aboriginal history is divided into four main sections, moving from the Dreaming through contact history, to massacres and resistance, on to assimilation policies and the politics of Aboriginal cultures, to a final section on historiography - the various ways in which Aboriginal history has been made and remade. A Frontier CD Rom was also produced.

Frontier Online, 1997, a national forum for discussing ‘White Australia’s forgotten war’. An archived website no longer updated. See http://www.abc.net.au/frontier/

The Koori History Website––Australia’s oldest Aboriginal-controlled website. Online since 1993. Activist and historian Dr Gary Foley’s website accessible at http://www.kooriweb.org/foley/indexb.html. Includes many sections including a Student Resource Index at http://www.kooriweb.org/foley/resources/resourcedx.html for students of history, politics, cultural studies, Australian Studies, Cinema Studies, Social Sciences and the Law.

Timeline of Aboriginal history of Western Australia, Wikipedia entry at http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Timeline_of_Aboriginal_history_of_Western_A...

Treaty http://www.aiatsis.gov.au/collections/exhibitions/treaty/information.html
An AIATSIS website presenting an overview of the history of the debates about a Treaty.

Torres Strait Islands history

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Bani, Ephraim, The guide to Torres Strait history 2000: the chronology: pre-history…1600…2000 years

Enosa, Alfred, ‘Torres Strait Islands history: Racial exploitation in the pearling industry,’ MOSA Magazine, 1988, No. 2, pp. 10–12

Pitt, George H 2005, The Indigenous history and colonial politics of Torres Strait: contesting culture and resources from 1867–1990, Master of Arts Thesis, Curtin University of Technology, Western Australia. Electronic resource at http://espace.library.curtin.edu.au/R?func=dbin-jump-full&local_base=gen...

Toohey, Edwina 2000, Before the aeroplane dance: the Torres Strait and Cape York: Islanders, Aborigines and Adventurers 1860s to 1914, Central Queensland University Press, Rockhampton, Queensland

Torres Strait from Wikipedia, accessible online from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Torres_Strait

Torres Strait Islands, Australian Broadcasting Commission’s website at
http://www.abc.net.au/ra/pacific/places/country/torres_strait_islands.htm

Eddie Mabo (1936–1992)
Eddie Mabo on the Australian Broadcasting Commission’s website, accessible from http://www.abc.net.au/schoolstv/australians/emabo.htm

Eddie Mabo from Wikipedia, accessible online from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Eddie_Mabo

Eddie Mabo in Hidden Heros of Australian History, accessible online from http://hiddenheroesofaustralianhistory.wetpaint.com/page/Eddie+Mabo

Aboriginal resistance and activism

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(See also Conflicts and undeclared frontier wars below)

Attwood, Bain and Andrew Markus 1999, The Struggle for Aboriginal Rights: a documentary history, Allen & Unwin

Foley, Gary 2010, ‘A Short History of the Australian Indigenous Resistance 1950–1990,’ Koorieweb, accessed from http://www.kooriweb.org/foley/resources/pdfs/229.pdf on 17 April 2012

Foley, Gary, Andrew Schaap and Edwina Howell eds, 2013, The Aboriginal Tent Embassy: Sovereignty, Black Power, Land Rights and the State, Routledge, United Kingdom

Gilbert, Kevin 1973, Because a White Man’ll Never Do It, Angus and Robertson

Gilbert, Kevin 1978, Living Black: Blacks Talk to Kevin Gilbert, Penguin Books

Gilbert, Kevin 1994, Black from the Edge, Hyland House, Melbourne

Gilbert, Kevin ed., 1988, Inside Black Australia: an anthology of Aboriginal poetry, Penguin

Grant, Stan 2016, Talking to My Country, HarperCollins Publishers

Harris, Stewart 1972, This Our Land, Australian National University Press, Canberra

Horner, Jack 1974, Bill Ferguson: Fighter for Aboriginal Freedom, A Biography, Australia and New Zealand Book Company

Horner, Jack 1981, ‘Ferguson, William (Bill) (1882–1950)’, entry in the Australian Dictionary of Biography, National Centre for Biography, Australian National University, at http://adb.anu.edu.au/biography/ferguson-william-bill-6160, accessed on 17 April 2012. Bill Ferguson was an Aboriginal politician and trade unionist, born at Waddai near Darlington Point, New South Wales. He was instrumental in launching the Aborigines’ Progressive Association at Dubbo in 1937 and with two other Aboriginal leaders, William Cooper and John Patten, organised a ‘Day of Mourning’ on 26 January 1938. Ferguson worked tirelessly for Aboriginal people. He was once a member of the Labor Party but resigned in disgust when Aboriginal welfare issues were ignored. He stood for parliament as an independent in the seat of Lawson in December 1949 but collapsed after his final speech, dying in Dubbo Base Hospital on 4 January 1950.

Horner, Jack 2004, Seeking Racial Justice: an insider’s memoir of the movement for Aboriginal advancement 1938–1978, Aboriginal Studies Press

Horner, JC (Jack) 1974, Vote Ferguson for Aboriginal Freedom: a biography, Sydney, Australia and New Zealand Book Co.

Maynard, John 2007, Fight for Liberty and Freedom: the origins of Australian Aboriginal activism, Aboriginal Studies Press

Munro, Chris, ‘A Journey of Resistance,’ (story about Yagan), Tracker, Vol 2, Issue 12, April 2012, pp. 54–55

Pascoe, Bruce 2012 with AIATSIS, ‘Activism’ and ‘Resistance’ in The Little Red Yellow Black Book, Aboriginal Studies Press. Also available online at http://www.aiatsis.gov.au/lryb/activism.html and http://www.aiatsis.gov.au/lryb/resistance.html

Perkins, Charles 1975, A Bastard Like Me, Ure Smith, Sydney

Read, Peter 1988, A Hundred Years War: the Wiradjuri people and the state, Australian National University Press, Canberra

Read, Peter 1990, Charles Perkins: a biography, Penguin, Sydney

Reynolds, Henry 1972, Aborigines and Settlers: the Australian experience 1788–1939, Cassell Australia

Reynolds, Henry 1981, The Other Side of the Frontier: An interpretation of the Aboriginal response to the invasion and settlement of Australia, James Cook University, north Queensland

Reynolds, Henry 1995, 2004, Fate of a Free People: the classic account of the Tasmanian Wars, Penguin

Reynolds, Henry 1997, Frontier, Allen & Unwin

Reynolds, Henry 2001, An Indelible Stain? The question of genocide in Australia’s history, Penguin

Reynolds, Henry 2012, A History of Tasmania, Cambridge University Press

Ryan, Lyndall 2012, Tasmanian Aborigines: A history since 1803, Allen & Unwin
An updated study of the resistance to colonial settler activism and survival of the Tasmanian Aborigines

Ward, Charlie 2016, A Handful of Sand: The Gurindji Struggle, After the Walk-off, Monash University Publishing, Clayton, Melbourne, Victoria

Watson, Joanne 2010, Palm Island: through a long lens, Aboriginal Studies Press, Canberra. Book on the history of Palm Island, Queensland.

See also Dr Gary Foley’s kooriweb listed under websites.

Conflicts and frontier wars

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See also Aboriginal history and Aboriginal history websites above and The Undeclared Frontier Wars on this website at http://nationalunitygovernment.org/Node/83

Aboriginal massacres, resources on the National Library of Australia's Trove at http://trove.nla.gov.au/result?q=+Aboriginal+massacres, access on 18 July 2014

‘Aborigine survives family massacre, but dies in war’, online article about Private William Joseph Punch who survived a massacre of his family in 1880 at Lake Cowal in central-western New South Wales, but gave his life while serving in the First AIF during World War I. Article on the Australians At War website at http://www.australiansatwar.gov.au/stories/stories_war=W1_id=3.html, accessed on 17 April 2012

Adams, Simon 2009, The Unforgiving Rope, UWA Publishing, Crawley, Western Australia (For example, Chapters 1, 3, 5, 7, 12)

Albert, Trish 2009, Remembering Coniston, Rigby/Pearson Education, Port Melbourne, Victoria. Published in collaboration with the National Museum of Australia.

Allbrook, Malcolm 2009, Hidden histories: conflict, massacres and the colonisation of the Pilbara: final report to Wangka May Pilbara Aboriginal Language Centre [and] Summary report. In three volumes and CD-ROM.

Attwood, Bain and SG Foster eds 2003, Frontier Conflict: The Australian Experience, National Museum of Australia, Canberra

Australian Institute of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Studies (AIATSIS), list of publications on Frontier conflicts at: http://mura.aiatsis.gov.au/uhtbin/cgisirsi/?ps=ftEh2t3vjO/x/44340031/123 accessed on 1 August 2013.

Banivanua Mar, Tracey, ‘Settler-colonial landscapes and narratives of possession’, Arena Journal, no. 37/38 (2012), pp. [176]–198. Refers to local Kalkadoon/Mitakoodi, Queensland massacre history.

'The Bathurst Massacres,' Treaty Republic, at http://treatyrepublic.net/content/bathurst-massacres, accessed on 18 July 2014

Blomfield, Geoffrey 1986, Baal Belbora, the end of the dancing: The agony of the British invasion of the ancient people of the Three Rivers––the Hastings, the Manning and the Macleay in New South Wales, Alternative Publishing Co-operative

'Bluff Rock', Tenterfield Shire Council at http://www.tenterfield.nsw.gov.au/community-services-tenterfield/aborigi..., accessed on 18 July 2014

Board of Studies, Department of Education, New South Wales [??], ‘Incidents between Aboriginal people in NSW and the British colonisers 1792–1809’, accessible online from http://k6.boardofstudies.nsw.edu.au/files/hsie/back09a.pdf, accessed on 17 April 2012

Bottoms, Timothy 2013, Conspiracy of Silence: Queensland’s frontier killing times, Allen & Unwin, Sydney

Bridge, Peter J 2013, Bang-em-all: bush life, and death, on the Gascoyne: Bangemall and the Thomas River Police Station, Hesperian Press, Victoria Park, Western Australia. Includes accounts of violent encounters between settlers and Aboriginal people in the south Pilbara, Western Australia.

Caledon Bay crisis from Wikipedia at http://en.wikpedia.org/wiki/Caledon_Bay_crisis accessed on 8 September 2014

Cannon, Michael 1990, Who Killed the Koories? William Heinemann Australia, Melbourne

Carter, Bevan and Lynda Nutter 2005, Nyungah Land: Records of Invasion and Theft of Aboriginal Land on the Swan River 1829–1850, Black History Series, Swan Valley Ngungah Community, Guildford, Western Australia

Chakola, Erika and Felicity Meakins eds 2016, Yijarni:True Stories from Gurindji Country, Aboriginal Studies Press, Canberra

Charnley, W Campbell 2010, Pigeon, Hesperian Press, Carlisle, Western Australia.

Clark, Ian D 1995, Scars in the Landscape: A Register of Massacre Sites in Western Victoria, 1803–1859, Aboriginal Studies Press, pp. 145–152 View pdf file

Clark, Ian D, ‘The Convincing Ground Aboriginal massacre at Portland Bay, Victoria: fact or fiction?’, Aboriginal History, Vol. 35 (2011), pp. 79–109

Clements, Nicholas 2014, The Black War: Fear, Sex and Resistance in Tasmania, University of Queensland Press

Clements, Nick, ‘Army of sufferers’: the experience of Tasmania’s black line, Journal of Australian Studies, Vol. 37 no. 1 (March 2013), pp. 19–33

Coe, Mary 1989, Windradyne, A Wiradjuri Koorie, Aboriginal Studies Press, Canberra

Collins, Patrick 2002, Goodbye Bussamarai: the Mandanjanji land war, Southern Queensland 1842–1852, University of Queensland Press, St Lucia

Coniston: one of the greatest injustices of contact history [videorecording], a film by David Batty and Francis Jupurruria Kelly, c. 2012. Produced and developed with the assistance of the Indigenous Department of Screen Australia; in association with the Australian Broadcasting Corporation and with the assistance of Screen Territory. Dialogue in Warlpiri with English subtitles. A film about the massacre at Coniston Station, Northern Territory that took place in 1928.

Connor, John 2002, The Australian Frontier Wars 1788–1838, University of New South Wales Press

Connor, Michael, ‘Convincing Ground: a history,’ Quadrant online 23 March 2009

Connors, Libby 2005. Dundalli (c. 1820–1855) was an Aboriginal leader born in the Blackall Range north-west of Moreton Bay, Queensland. Part of his story is included in the Australian Dictionary of Biography, National Centre of Biography, Australian National University at http://adb.anu.edu.au/biography/dundalli-12895 accessed on 17 April 2012

Connors, Libby, ‘Witness to frontier violence: an Aboriginal boy before the Supreme Court,’ Australian Historical Studies, Vol. 42, No. 2 (June 2011), pp. 230–243

Connors, Libby 2015, Warrior: A Legendary Leader's Dramatic Life and Violent Death on the Colonial Frontier, Allen & Unwin

Cox, Robert 2010, Baptised in blood: the shocking secret history of Sorell, Wellington Bridge Press, North Hobart, Tasmania

Cribbin, John 1984, The Killing Times: The Coniston Massacre 1928, Fontana Books, Sydney

Critchett, Jan 1990, A Distant Field of Murder: Western District Frontiers, 1834–1848, Melbourne University Press

Culture Victoria Massacre Map
See http://www.cv.vic.gov.au/stories/indigenous-stories-about-war-and-invasi...
Shows locations of known killings of Aboriginal people, in what became the Colony of Victoria in 1851, for the period 1836–1853. Compiled for the Koorie Heritage Trust's 1991 publication Koorie.

Daley, Paul, 'Restless Indigenous Remains,' Meanjin, 8 September 2014 at http://meanjin.com.au/articles/post/restless-indigenous-remains/? accessed on 8 September 2014

Davis-Hurst, Patricia 2010, Sunrise Station revisited, Taree, NSW. Includes, among a number of subjects, information the history of Purfleet (known a Sunrise Station before World War II) and on Manning area, New South Wales, massacres.

Dawson, Christopher 2009, 'The hanging at the Brisbane Windmill', Inside History (Boggo Road Gaol Historical Society), Fairfield Gardens, Queensland

Elder, Bruce 1988, Blood on the Wattle: Massacres and mistreatment of Aboriginal Australians since 1788, New Holland Publishers, Revised and expanded edition 1998. Reprinted 2000.

Evans, Raymond and Ørsted-Jensen, Robert, 'I Cannot Say the Numbers that Were Killed': Assessing Violent Mortality on the Queensland Frontier,' (2014). Available at SSRN: http://ssm.com/abstract=2467836 or http://dx.doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.2467836

Fels, Marie Hansen 2011, I succeeded once: the Aboriginal Protectorate on the Mornington Peninsula, 1839–1840, ANU E Press, Acton ACT. Refers to the raid into Gippsland, Victoria and a recalled massacre.

Forrest, Roni Gray 2004, Kukenarup––Two Stories: A Report on Historical Accounts of a Massacre Site at Cocanarup near Ravensthorpe, WA, Albany, funded by the Department of Indigenous Affairs

Foster, Robert, Rick Hosking and Amanda Nettelbeck 2001, Fatal Collisions: The South Australian frontier and the violence of memory, Wakefield Press, Kent Town, South Australia

Foster, Robert, ‘Don’t mention the war: frontier violence and language of concealment,’ History Australia, Vol. 6, No. 3 (December 2009), pp. 68.1–68.15)

Foster, Robert and Amanda Nettelbeck 2012, Out of the silence: history and memory of South Australia’s frontier wars, Wakefield Press, Kent Town, South Australia

French, Maurice 1989, Conflict on the Condamine: Aborigines and the European invasion, Darling Downs Institute Press, Toowoomba, Queensland

Gardner, Peter 1987, Our Founding Murdering Father: Angus McMillan and the Kurnai Tribe of Gippsland 1839–1865, self-published.

Gardner, Peter 1993, Gippsland Massacres: The destruction of the Kurnai tribes 1800–1860, Ngarak Press, Ensay, Victoria

Grassby, Al and Marji Hill 1988, Six Australian Battlefields: the black resistance to invasion and the white struggle against colonial oppression, Angus and Robertson

Green, Neville 1995, The Forrest River Massacres, Fremantle Arts Centre Press, Fremantle, Western Australia

Green, Neville 2005, Calyute (flourished 1833–1840), Aboriginal resistance leader of the Pinjareb or Murray River tribe 100 kilometres south of Perth, Western Australia. Some of his story is in an entry in the Australian Dictionary of Biography, National Centre of Biography, Australian National University at http://adb.anu.edu.au/biography/calyute-12832, accessed on 17 April 2012

Green, Neville, ‘Dilemmas, dramas and damnation in contested history,’ Studies in Australian History, No. 23 (2010), pp. [203]–214. Reviews the evidence for the Forrest River massacre in Western Australia.

Greenwood, Mark 2013, Jandamarra, Allen & Unwin, Crow’s Nest, New South Wales

Hasluck, Alexandra 1967, ‘Yagan (?–1833)’, Australian Dictionary of Biography, National Centre of Biography, Australian National University, at http://adb.anu.edu.au/biography/yagan-2826, accessed on 17 April 2012

Horton, David ed 1994, The Encyclopaedia of Aboriginal Australia (EAA), Vols 1 and 2, Australian Institute for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Studies, Canberra
Includes entries on individual warriors, conflicts, 'dispersal', massacres and warfare. A small number of conflicts and massacres that occurred all over Australia are mentioned in Vol 2 on p. 668. They include: the Battle of Pinjarra (WA); the Coppermine Murders (NT); the Fighting Hills Massacre (Vic.); Fighting Waterhole Massacre (Vic); Forrest River Massacres (WA); the Hornet Bank Massacres (Qld); Jaburrara; Keppel Islands (Qld); Lubra Creek Massacre (Vic.); Murdering Gully Massacre (Vic.); Risdon Massacre (Tas). Other famous massacre that occurred that is mentioned in the dictionary is the Myall Creek Massacre (NSW).

Howard, Bob 2008, 'Noongar Resistance on the South Coast 1830–1890' at http://www.kippleonline.net/bobhoward/NoongarResistance.html, accessed on 11 July 2014

Jandamarra (c. 1873–1.4.1897) was a Bunuba warrior who led an armed insurrection against Europeans who were attempting to set up a large station on Bunuba land in the Kimberley Region of Western Australia. See, for example, Wikipedia entry at http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jandamarra; ‘Jandamarrajandamarrajandamarra!’ in Craig Cormick 1998, Unwritten Histories, Aboriginal Studies Press, pp. 137–149

Jaunay, Graham 1996, 'The Maria Massacre,' Adelaide Promformat at http://www.jaunay.com/maria.html access on 25 November 2013

Johnson, Murray and Ian McFarlane 2015, Van Diemen's Land: An Aboriginal History, University of New South Wales Press

Kelly, Roma and Nicholas Evans, ‘The McKenzie massacre on Bentinck Island’, Aboriginal History, Volume 9, 1985, pp. 44–52

Kohen, JL 2005, Pemulwuy (1750–1802). Pemulwuy was a Dharug warrior, born near Botany Bay on the northern side of the Georges River, Sydney, New South Wales. His story is included in the Australian Dictionary of Biography, National Centre of Biography, Australian National University at http://adb.anu.edu.au/biography/pemulwuy-13147 accessed on 17 April 2012

Lawson, Tom 2014, The Last Man: A British Genocide in Tasmania, IB Tauris Publishers

Lay, John 2016, Boodgery: First Contact in the Mid Murray, 1820 to 1860, Not So Shabby Books

Lendrum, SD 'The "Coorong Massacre": Martial Law and the Aborigines at First Settlement,' (1977) 6 Adelaide Law Review, pp. 26–43

Lewis, Darrell 2012, A Wild History: Life and Death on the Victoria River Frontier, Monash University Publishing, Melbourne

List of Massacres of Indigenous Australians, Wikipedia entry at http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_massacres_of_Indigenous_Australians, accessed on 17 April 2012

Litster, Mirani, ‘Looking for the proverbial needle? The archaeology of Australian colonial frontier massacres,’ Archaeology in Oceania, Vol. 46, No. 3, (October 2011), pp. 105–117

Logan, William and Keir Reeves eds c. 2009, Places of pain and shame: dealing with ‘difficult heritage’, Routledge, Milton Park, Abington, Oxon; New York. Part I Massacre and genocide sites; Part 5 The Myall Creek Memorial: history, identity and reconciliation

Martin, Davey 2011, Essays on the Western District frontier 1835–45: eye-opening studies on secrets kept since Victoria’s frontier days: about our Aborigines, our pioneers and our unknown convicts, PenFolk Publishing, Blackburn, Victoria

'Massacre at Appin in 1816,' Campbelltown and Airds Historical Society Inc. at http://www.cahs.com.au/massacre-at-appin-1816.html, accessed on 18 July 2014

McCarthy, Teresa 2008, 'The Attack at Angkwerl (Anna's Reservoir) August 1884', collated for the Northern Territory Library Anmatyerr community history project.

Medcalf, Rory c. 1989, 1993, Rivers of blood: massacres of Northern Rivers Aborigines and their resistance to the white occupation 1838–1870, Lismore, New South Wales

Milliss, Roger 1992, Waterloo Creek: the Australia Day Massacre of 1838, George Gipps and the Conquest of New South Wales, McPhee Gribble, Ringwood, Victoria

Monticone, Judith 1999, Healing the Land: A closer look at the needs of the Australian Reconciliation Movement, Vol. 1, Healing the Land, Mitchell, ACT. (Lists many conflicts between Europeans and Aborigines and Aborigines and Europeans in which people on both sides were killed or massacred. Also describes some conflicts between Aboriginal nations in which people were killed).

Moran, Kevin 2011, Sand and stone: Pigeon, Hesperian Press, Carlisle, Western Australia. Refers to the Bunuba people, Jandamarra (also known as ‘Pigeon’) and frontier life in the Kimberley, Western Australia.

Morton, Steve 2013 et al eds, Desert Lake: art, science and stories from Paruku, CSIRO Publishing, Collingwood, Victoria. Includes reference to a massacre on Sturt Creek, north-western Australia.

Munro, Chris, ‘Victoria’s silent shame’, footprints, Tracker, Vol 3, Issue 24, July 2013, pp. 48–49 (article about the massacres of the Kurnai of Victoria)

'The Myall Creek Massacre' at http://www.myallcreekmassacre.com/Myall_Creek_Massacre/Home.html, accessed on 18 July 2014

National Archives of Australia 2004, Dhakiyarr Wirrpanda: Appeal for Justice, Dhakiyarr's case at: https://web.archive.org/web/20060206165547/http://uncommonlives.naa.gov...., accessed on 8 September 2014

Nettelbeck, Amanda and Robert Foster 2007, In the Name of the Law: William Willshire and the policing of the Australian frontier, Wakefield Press

Niewøjt, Lawrence, ‘The massacre of the Gadubanud at Aire River,’ Victorian Historical Journal, Vol. 81, No. 2 (November 2010), pp. 193–213

Ørsten-Jensen, Robert 2011, Frontier history revisited: colonial Queensland and the ‘history war’, Lux Mundi Publishing, Coorparoo, Queensland

Parry, Naomi 2005, ‘Musquito (1780–1825)’, Australian Dictionary of Biography, National Centre of Biography, Australian National University, http://adb.anu.edu.au/biography/musquito-13124, accessed on 17 April 2012. Musquito was an Aboriginal resistance leader, most likely of Eora descent, born on the north shore of Port Jackson (Sydney), New South Wales.

Pascoe, Bruce 2007, Convincing Ground: Learning to fall in love with your country, Aboriginal Studies Press, Canberra, Australia, Reprinted 2012

Pascoe, Bruce 2014, Dark Emu–Black Seeds: Agriculture or accident? Magabala Books, Broome, Western Australia

Pedersen, Howard and Banjo Woorunmurra 1995, Jandamarra and the Bunuba resistance, Magabala Books, Broome, Western Australia

Peters-Little, Frances, Ann Curthoys and John Docker eds 2010, Passionate histories: myth, memory and Indigenous Australia, ANU E Press and Aboriginal History Inc., Canberra

Read, Peter 1988, A Hundred Years War: the Wiradjuri people and the state, Australian National University Press, Canberra

Read, Peter, 'Murder, Revenge and Reconciliation on the North Eastern Frontier,' History Australia, Volume 4, Number 1, 2007, Monash University Press, pp. 0.91–09.15

Refshauge, WF, ‘The swivel gun massacre,’ Tasmanian Historical Research Association, Papers and Proceedings, Vol. 57, No. 1, (April 2010), pp. 40–44

Refshauge, WF 2016, The Killings at Risdon Cove, Australian Scholarly Publishing, Melbourne

Reynolds, Henry 1972, Aborigines and Settlers: the Australian experience 1788–1939, Cassell Australia

Reynolds, Henry 1981, The Other Side of the Frontier: An interpretation of the Aboriginal response to the invasion and settlement of Australia, James Cook University, north Queensland

Reynolds, Henry 1995, 2004, Fate of a Free People: the classic account of the Tasmanian Wars, Penguin

Reynolds, Henry 1997, Frontier, Allen & Unwin

Reynolds, Henry 2001, An Indelible Stain? The question of genocide in Australia’s history, Penguin

Reynolds, Henry 2012, A History of Tasmania, Cambridge University Press

Reynolds, Henry 2013, Forgotten War, NewSouth Publishing, University of New South Wales Press

Richards, Jonathan 2008, The Secret War: A True History of Queensland's Native Police, University of Queensland Press

Roberts, David Andrew 2005, Windradyne (1800–1829), Wiradjuri resistance leader. Story included in the Australian Dictionary of Biography, National Centre of Biography, Australian National University at http://adb.anu.edu.au/biography/windradyne-13251, accessed on 17 April 2012

Roberts, Tony 2005, Frontier Justice: A History of the Gulf Country to 1900, University of Queensland Press, Brisbane

Roberts, Tony, ‘The brutal truth: what happened in the Gulf Country,’ The Monthly, November (2009), pp. 15–17. Describes frontier massacres in the Gulf Country of the Northern Territory.

Rose, Deborah Bird 1991, Hidden Histories: Black Stories from Victoria River Downs, Humbert River and Wave Hill Stations, Aboriginal Studies Press, Canberra

Ryan, Lyndall 1996, The Aboriginal Tasmanians, Allen & Unwin

Ryan, Lyndall, 'Risdon Cove and the massacre of 3 May 1804: their place in Tasmanian history,' Tasmanian Historical Studies, Vol 9, 2004, pp. 107–123, available at: http://www.yale.edu/gsp/colonial/downloads/200409420.pdf, accessed on 9 August 2014

Ryan, Lyndall, 'List of multiple killings of Aborigines in Tasmania 1804–1835', Online Encyclopedia of Mass Violence, SciencesPo., Wednesday 5 March 2008, accessed from http://www.massviolence.org/IMG/article_PDF/List-of-multiple-killings-of... on 16 July 2014

Ryan, Lyndall, ‘“a very bad business”: Henry Dangar and the Myall Creek Massacre 1838’, University of Newcastle at http://www.newcastle.edu.au/Resources/Schools/Humanities%20and%20Social%.... Paper presented at an Information Night on ‘What’s In a Name? Dangar Park and the Myall Creek Massacre, Newcastle Region Art Gallery, 27 November 2008. This article also refers to the Kamilaroi and conflict with colonists for the possession of the Gwydir River, New South Wales.

Ryan, Lyndall, ‘Settler massacres on the Port Phillip frontier, 1836–1851’, Journal of Australian Studies, Vol. 34, No. 3 (September 2010), pp. 257–273

Ryan, Lyndall 2012, Tasmanian Aborigines––A history since 1803, Allen and Unwin

Ryan, Lyndall, ‘The black line in Van Diemen’s Land: success or failure?’, Journal of Australian Studies, Vol. 37, no. 1 (March 2013), pp. 3–18

Salisbury, T and PJ Gresser 1971, Windradyne of the Wiradjuri: Martial Law at Bathurst in 1824, Wentworth Books Pty Ltd, Surry Hills, Sydney

Schlunke, Katrina A 2005, Bluff Rock: Autobiography of a Massacre, Curtin University Books
The story of a massacre of Aboriginal people at Bluff Rock near Tenterfield, New South Wales

Shaw, Bruce 2000, ‘Nemarluk (1911–1940)’, Australian Dictionary of Biography, National Centre of Biography, Australian National University at http://adb.anu.edu.au/biography/nemarluk-11222, accessed on 17 April 2012. Nemarluk was an Aboriginal resistance leader born c. 1911 in the Daly River region of the Northern Territory. In the 1930s Aboriginal resistance leaders operated on both sides of the Northern Territory and Western Australian borders.

Stewart, Lyn 2015, Blood Revenge: Murder on the Hawkesbury, Rosenberg Publishing
National Library of Australia Overview: 'Blood Revenge examines the first time that white men were held to account in a criminal court of New South Wales for killing Aborigines. It happened in 1799, just 11 years after the New South Wales colony began. This book answers the disturbing question: Why were five men found guilty of killing two Aborigines–yet they were never punished? The story lays bare the nature of black-white relations at the colony's Hawkesbury River frontier settlement. Governor John Hunter tried to carry out his orders and stop the wanton killing of Aborigines. Inevitably there was a divide between policy and practice.
Historians writing about black-white relations say we will never reach true reconciliation until we are prepared to face the truth of our history. Author Lyn Stewart's own ancestor murdered two Aborigines at the Hawkesbury River settlement over two hundred years ago. "My grandfather thought this was something we should not talk about. By delving into this part of my family history I have learned not only why murders happened but also about the volatile and uncertain relationships between settlers and Aborigines as the colony's land grants steadily displaced the local people from their traditional lands. It is a history we must understand."
Now retired as a health professional, Lyn Stewart's career was in dietetics in a wide variety of employment and self-employment situations. Her first university study was in agricultural science. Researching and writing this story has been a long-term ambition and the reason Lyn was moved to return to university in 1989 to study Australian history.'

'The Story of the Myall Creek Massacre,' Friends of Myall Creek, at http://www.myallcreek.info/massacre/article/the-story-of-the-myall-creek..., accessed on 18 July 2014

Tatz, Colin 2011, Genocide in Australia: by accident or design? Monash University, Clayton, Victoria. Also available online at http://www.law.monash.edu.au/castancentre/projects/tatz-essay.pdf
Includes an appendix listing some known massacre sites and dates.

Tedeschi, Mark, 'Justice evaded, justice denied', Inside History, May–June 2014, pp. 40–45
A re-examination of the trials of those responsible for the 1838 Myall Creek massacre, New South Wales. Part 1 in a two-part series.

Tedeschi, Mark, 'We remember them', Inside History, July–August 2014, pp. 46–51
A re-examination of the trials of those responsible for the 1838 Myall Creek massacre, New South Wales, Part 2.

Treaty Republic Massacres Maps
The Treaty Republic website includes maps of some massacre sites in Australia, New South Wals and Victoria. See these maps at:
Australia Map: http://treatyrepublic.net/content/history-australian-aboriginal-massacres
New South Wales: http://treatyrepublic.org/content/new-south-wales-aboriginal-massacres
Victoria: http://treatyrepublic.net/content/victorian-aboriginal-massacres
Gippsland Massacres: http://treatyrepublic.net/content/east-gippsland-massacres-1840-1850
Jardwadjali, Western Victoria: http://treatyrepublic.org/content/massacres-jardwadjali-country

Turbet, Peter 2011, First frontier: the occupation of the Sydney region 1788–1816, Rosenberg Publishing, Kenthurst, NSW

Turnbull, Clive 1948, Black War: The extermination of the Tasmanian Aborigines, FW Cheshire, Sydney

Whispering in our hearts: the Mowla Bluff massacre, [videorecording (DVD)], creators Graeme Isaac, Mitch Torres, Australian Film Finance Corporation, Ronin Films, SBS Independent. An Aboriginal community in north-west Western Australia tells the story of the killing in 1916 by local pastoralists and police of family members at Mowla Bluff.

Windradyne (c. 1800–21.3.1829)––an Aboriginal warrior and resistance leader of the Wiradjuri nation. See, among other sources, Wikipedia entry on Windradyne at http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Windradyne

Wolwood, Mick 2012, Birrarung database [CD-ROM], Tarcoola Press, Kangaroo Ground, Victoria. Includes reference to massacres in Victoria.

Yagan (c. 1795–11.7.1833). See, among other sources, Wikipedia entry on Yagan, an Aboriginal warrior from Western Australia who played a key role in resistance around Perth. Website at: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Yagan

Yirrkala Bark Petitions 1963
http://www.aiatsis.gov.au/collections/exhibitions/yirrkala/home.html
AIATSIS Collections online exhibition marking the 50th anniversary of the bark petitions. In 1963 the Yolgnu clans sent the petitions in Yolgnu Matha and English to the Federal Parliament in protest against the excision of land from their reserve for bauxite mining. The land was taken without consultation with the people of Yirrkala.

Young, Lisa and Karrie-Anne Kearing and Mark Salmon, c. 2009, Pinjarra massacre memorial [kit]: an Art on the Move education resource. Details available at http://www.artonthemove.com.au/content/Exhibitions/Pinjarra+Massacre+Mem...

Massacres: Australia and by State and Territory

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Some of the main references and resources on frontier conflict and wars that took place all over Australia even into the 1930s. Other references are listed above alphabetically by author or can be found in the bibliographies in the books and journals, or on the websites, listed below.

Australia
Aboriginal massacres, resources on the National Library of Australia's Trove at http://trove.nla.gov.au/result?q=+Aboriginal+massacres, accessed on 18 July 2014

Attwood, Bain and SG Foster eds 2003, Frontier Conflict: the Australian Experience, National Museum of Australia

Attwood, Bain 2005, Telling the Truth About Aboriginal History, Allen & Unwin

Daley, Paul, 'Restless Indigenous Remains,' Meanjin, 8 September 2014 at http://meanjin.com.au/articles/post/restless-indigenous-remains/?

Monticone, Judith 1999, Healing the Land: A closer look at the needs of the Australian Reconciliation Movement, Vol. 1, Healing the Land, Mitchell, ACT

Reynolds, Henry 2013, Forgotten War, NewSouth Publishing

Australian Capital Territory
The Australian Capital Territory (ACT) was part of New South Wales until 1911, so any known massacres that occurred in or near the ACT are dealt with, for example, in Monticone.

Avery, Steven 1994, Aboriginal and European Encounter in the Canberra Region: a question of change and the archaeological record, available online at: http://www.kunama.com/custlaw/CUSTIND.htm

Gillespie, Lyall 1984, Aborigines of the Canberra Region, Canberra

New South Wales
'The Bathurst Massacres', Treaty Republic, at http://treatyrepublic.net/content/bathurst-massacres, accessed on 18 July 2014

Blomfield, Geoffrey 1986, Baal Belbora, the end of the dancing: The agony of the British invasion of the ancient people of the Three Rivers––the Hastings, the Manning and the Macleay in New South Wales, Alternative Publishing Co-operative

'Bluff Rock', Tenterfield Shire Council at http://www.tenterfield.nsw.gov.au/community-services-tenterfield/aborigi..., accessed on 18 July 2014

Connor John 2002, The Australian Frontier Wars 1788–1838, University of New South Wales Press

'Massacre at Appin in 1816', Campbelltown and Airds Historical Society Inc. at http://www.cahs.com.au/massacre-at-appin-1816.html, accessed on 18 July 2014

Milliss, Roger 1992, Waterloo Creek: the Australia Day Massacre of 1838, George Gipps and the Conquest of New South Wales, McPhee Gribble, Ringwood, Victoria

'The Myall Creek Massacre,' at http://www.myallcreekmassacre.com/Myall_Creek_Massacre/Home.html, accessed on 18 July 2014

Salisbury, T and PJ Gresser 1971, Windradyne of the Wiradjuri: Martial Law at Bathurst in 1824, Wentworth Books Pty Ltd, Surry Hills, Sydney

Schlunke, Katrina A 2005, Bluff Rock: Autobiography of a Massacre, Curtin University Books, Western Australia

Stewart, Lyn 2015, Blood Revenge: Murder on the Hawkesbury, Rosenberg Publishing

'The story of the Myall Creek Massacre,' Friends of Myall Creek, at http://www.myallcreek.info/massacre/article/the-story-of-the-myall-creek..., accessed on 18 July 2014

Turbet, Peter 2011, The First Frontier: the Occupation of the Sydney Region 1788–1816, Rosenberg

Northern Territory
Coniston: one of the greatest injustices of contact history [videorecording], about the massacre at Coniston Station in 1928. A film by David Batty and Francis Jupurruria Kelly, c. 2012. Produced with the assistance of the Indigenous Department of Screen Australia; in association with the Australian Broadcasting Corporation and with the assistance of Screen Territory. Dialogue in Walpiri with English subtitles.

Albert, Trish 2009, Remembering Coniston, Rigby/Pearson Education, Port Melbourne, Victoria. Published in collaboration with the National Museum of Australia

Chakola, Erika and Felicity Meakins eds 2016, Yijarni: True Stories from Gurindji Country, Aboriginal Studies Press, Canberra

Lewis, Darrell 2012, A Wild History: Life and Death on the Victoria River Frontier, Monash University Publishing

Nettelbeck, Amanda and Robert Foster 2007, In the Name of the Law: William Wiltshire and the Policing of the Australian Frontier, Wakefield Press

'Northern and Western Australia, 1824–1834,' in John Connor 2002, The Australian Frontier Wars 1788–1838, University of New South Wales Press, pp. 68–83

Roberts, Tony 2012, Frontier Justice: A History of the Gulf Country to 1900, University of Queensland Press, Brisbane

Roberts, Tony, 'The brutal truth: what happened in the Gulf Country,' The Monthly, November (2009), pp. 15–17.

Rose, Deborah Bird 1991, Hidden Histories: Black Stories from Victoria River Downs, Humbert River and Wave Hill Stations, Aboriginal Studies Press, Canberra

Queensland
Ayres, Marie-Louise, 'A Picture Asks a Thousand Questions', The National Library Magazine, June 2011, pp. 8–11

Bottoms, Timothy 2013, Conspiracy of Silence: Queensland's frontier killing times, Allen & Unwin

Collins, Patrick 2002, Goodbye Bussamarai: the Mandanjanji land war, Southern Queensland 1842–1852, University of Queensland Press, St Lucia

Connors, Libby 2015, Warrior: A Legendary Leader's Dramatic Life and Violent Death on the Colonial Frontier, Allen & Unwin

Evans, Raymond and Ørsted-Jensen, Robert, 'I Cannot Say the Numbers that Were Killed': Assessing Violent Mortality on the Queensland Frontier (2014). Available at SSRN: http://ssrn.com/abstract=2467836 or http://dx.doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.2467836, accessed on 9 August 2014

Kerwin, Dale 2010, 'Aboriginal heroes: episodes in the colonial landscape', Queensland Historical Atlas at: http://www.qhatlas.com.au/content/aboriginal-heroes-episodes-colonial-la..., accessed on 10 August 2015.

Richards, Jonathan 2008, The Secret War: A True History of Queensland's Native Police, University of Queensland Press

South Australia
Foster, Robert 'Don't mention the war: frontier violence and the language of concealment', History Australia , Vol. 6, No. 3, (December 2009), pp. 68.1–68.15, Abstract at: http://journals.publishing.monash.edu/ojs/index.php/ha/article/view/ha09... accessed on 9 April 2015

Foster, Robert, Rick Hosking and Amanda Nettelbeck 2001, Fatal Collisions: The South Australian frontier and the violence of memory, Wakefield Press, Kent Town, South Australia

Foster, Robert and Amanda Nettelbeck 2012, Out of the Silence: the History and Memory of South Australia's Frontier Wars, Wakefield Press, Kent Town, South Australia

Lendrum, SD, 'The "Coorong Massacre": Martial Law and the Aborigines at First Settlement,' (1977) 6 Adelaide Law Review, pp. 26–43. A link to the paper is at: http://www.austlii.edu.au/au/journals/AdelLawRw/1977/2.html, accessed on 9 April 2015

Tasmania
Clements, Nicholas 2014, The Black War: Fear, Sex and Resistance in Tasmania, University of Queensland Press

Cox, Robert 2010, Baptised in blood: the shocking history of Sorell, Wellington Bridge Press, North Hobart, Tasmania

Johnson, Murray and Ian McFarlane 2015, Van Diemen's Land: An Aboriginal History, NewSouth Publishing

Lawson, Tom 2014, The Last Man: A British Genocide in Tasmania, IB Tauris Publishers

Refshauge, WF, 'The swivel gun massacre,' Tasmanian Historical Research Association, Papers and Proceedings, Vol. 57, No. 1, (April 2010, pp. 40–44

Refshauge, WF 2016, The Killing at Risdon Cove, Australian Scholarly Publishing, Melbourne

Reynolds, Henry 1995, 2004, Fate of A Free People: the classic account of the Tasmanian Wars, Penguin

Reynolds, Henry 2012, A History of Tasmania, Cambridge University Press

Ryan, Lyndall 2012, Tasmanian Aborigines: A history since 1803, Allen & Unwin

Ryan, Lyndall, 'The Black Line in Van Diemen's Land: success or failure?', Journal of Australian Studies, Vol. 37, no. 1 (March 2013), pp. 3–18

Turnbull, Clive 1948, Black War: The extermination of the Tasmanian Aborigines, FW Chesire, Sydney

'Van Diemen's Land, 1826–1831,' in John Connor 2002, The Australian Frontier Wars 1788–1838, University of New South Wales Press, pp. 84–101

Victoria
Cannon, Michael 1990, Who Killed the Koories? William Heinemann Australia, Melbourne

Clark, Ian D 1995, Scars in the Landscape: A Register of Massacre Sites in Western Victoria, 1803–1859, Aboriginal Studies Press

Clark, Ian D, 'The Convincing Ground Aboriginal Massacre at Portland Bay, Victoria: fact or fiction? Aboriginal History, Vol. 35 (2011), pp. 79–109 at: http://press.anu.edu.au/apps/bookworm/view/Aboriginal+History+Volume+35+..., accessed on 9 April 2015

Critchett, Jan 1990, A Distant Field of Murder: Western District Frontiers, 1834–1848, Melbourne University Press

Fels, Marie Hansen 2011, I succeeded once: the Aboriginal Protectorate on the Mornington Peninsula, 1839–1840, ANU E Press, Canberra, ACT

Flyn, Cal, 'Cal Flyn: the terrible truths in my family history', The Australian, 23 April 2016
In an extract from her new book, Thicker Than Water, published by HarperCollins on 26 April 2016, Cal Flyn talks about the massacre at Warrigal Creek in July 1843 in which between 80 to 200 Gunai (Kurnai) people were slaughtered. Ms Flyn also lists other massacres that happened in Gippsland. She reveals that the leader of the men who perpetrated the killings was 'the Butcher of Gippsland', her great-uncle Angus McMillan, a Scot whose people had suffered the Highland Clearances to make way for sheep. Read more at: http://www.theaustralian.com.au/life/weekend-australian-magazine/cal-fly...

Flyn, Cal 2016, Thicker Than Water: A Memoir of family, Secrets, Guilt and History, Fourth Estate, an imprint of HarperCollinsPublishers, Sydney

Gardner, Peter 1987, Our Founding Murdering Father: Angus McMillan and the Kurnai Tribe of Gippsland 1839–1865, self-published.

Gardner, Peter 1987, Through Foreign Eyes, CGS, Churchill

Gardner, Peter 1993, Gippsland Massacres: The destruction of the Kurnai tribes 1800–1860, Ngarak Press, Ensay, Victoria

Lay, John 2016, Boodgery: First Contact in the Mid Murray 1820 to 1860, Not So Shabby Books

'The Liverpool Plains and Port Phillip Districts, 1838,' in John Connor 2002, The Australian Frontier Wars 1788–1838, University of New South Wales Press, pp. 102–122

Martin, Davey 2011, Essays on the Westertn Districts Frontier 1835–45: eye-opening studies on secrets kept since Victoria's frontier days: about our Aborigines, our pioneers and our unknown convicts, PenFolk Publishing, Blackburn, Victoria

Munro, Chris, 'Victoria's silent shame,' footprints, Tracker, Vol 3, Issue 24, July 2013, pp. 48–49 (article about the massacres of the Kurnai of Vuctoria)

Niewøjt, Lawrence, 'The massacre of the Gabubanud at Aire River,' Victorian Historical Journal, Vol. 81, No. 2, (November 2010), pp. 193–213

Pascoe, Bruce 2007, Convincing Ground: learning to fall in love with your country, Aboriginal Studies Press, Canberra

Pascoe, Bruce 2014, Dark Emu–Black Seeds: agriculture or accident? Magabala Books, Broome, Western Australia

Ryan, Lyndall, 'Settler massacres on the Port Phillip frontier, 1836–1851', Journal of Australian Studies, Vol. 34, No. 3 (September 2010), pp. 257–273

Tully, John 1997, Djaja Warrung Language of Central Victoria, Dunnolly, Victoria. Includes information about conflicts between Aboriginal people and colonists in central Victoria on pages 6 to 9.

Wolwood, Mick 2012, Birrarung database [CD-ROM], Tarcoola Press, Kangaroo Ground, Victoria

Western Australia
Adams, Simon 2009, The Unforgiving Rope, UWA Publishing, Crawley, Western Australia (for example Chapters 1, 3, 5, 7, 12)

Allbrook, Malcolm 2009, Hidden histories, conflict, massacres and the colonisation of the Pilbara: final report to Wangka May Pilbara Aboriginal Language Centre [and] Summary Report. In three volumes and CD-ROM.

Bridge, Peter J 2013, Bang-em-all: bush life, and death on the Gascoyne: Bangemall and the Thomas River Police Station, Hesperian Press, Victoria Park, Western Australia. (Violence between "settlers" and Aboriginal people in the south Pilbara).

Carter, Bevan and Lynda Nutter 2005, Ngungah Land: Records of Invasion and Theft of Aboriginal Land on the Swan River 1829–1850, Black History Series, Swan Valley Ngungah Community, Guildford, Western Australia

Charnley, W Campbell 2010, Pigeon, Hesperian Press, Carlisle, Western Australia

Forrest, Roni Gray 2004, Kukenarup–Two Stories: A Report on Historical Accounts of a Massacre Site at Cocanarup near Ravensthorp, WA, Albany, funded by the Department of Indigenous Affairs

Green, Neville 1995, The Forrest River Massacres, Fremantle Arts Centre Press, Fremantle, Western Australia

Green Neville, 'Dilemmas, dramas and damnation in contested history,' Studies in Australian History, No. 23 (2010), pp. [203]–214. Reviews the evidence for the Forrest River massacre in Western Australia

Greenwood, Mark 2013, Jandamarra, Allen & Unwin, Crow's Nest, Sydney, New South Wales

Moran, Kevin 2011, Sand and stone: Pigeon, Hesperian Press, Carlisle, Western Australia

'Northern and Western Australia, 1824–1834', in John Connor 2002, The Australian Frontier Wars 1788–1838, University of New South Wales Press

Parliament of Western Australia 1905, Royal Commission on the Condition of the Natives, Report copy available at: http://sovereignunion.mobi/pdf/2016/Report+of+the+Royal+Commission+on+th...

Pedersen, Howard and Banjo Woorunmurra 1995, Jandamarra and the Bunuba Resistance, Magabala Books, Broome, Western Australia, reprinted 2007

Pinjarra Massacre Site: Witnesses at: http://www.pinjarramassacresite.com/content/witnesses/, accessed on 24 March 2015

Warriors of the Frontier

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Bussamarai
Bussamarai was a resistance leader in southern Queensland who fought to save his people’s land on what is today the border of Queensland and New South Wales. More about his life and struggle can be found in: Collins, Patrick 2002, Goodbye Bussamarai: the Mandandanji Land War South Queensland 1842–52, University of Queensland Press

Calyute
See entry in The Encyclopaedia of Aboriginal Australia, Vol. 1, pp. 176–177;
Green, Neville 2005, Calyute (flourished 1833–1840), Aboriginal resistance leader of the Pinjareb or Murray River tribe 100 kilometres south of Perth, Western Australia. Some of his story is also in an entry in the Australian Dictionary of Biography, National Centre of Biography, Australian National University at http://adb.anu.edu/biography/calyute-12832, accessed on 17 April 2012

Museum Without Walls, Mandurah Community Museum [ND], Pinjarra Battle/Massacre 1824 available at http://www.mandurahcommunitymuseum.org/downloads%5CPinjarra%20Massacre5.pdf accessed on 27 July 2015

Dhakiyarr Wirrpanda
Dhakiyarr Wirrpanda (c. 1900–1934) was a Yolgnu Aboriginal leader born near Blue Mud (Caledon) Bay in the Northern Territory. He was charged with the murder of Constable Albert Stewart McColl. After a controversial Darwin trial Dhakiyarr Wirrpanda was sentenced to death. As the case was heard in the Northern Territory an appeal, the first relating to an Aboriginal person, was made to the High Court of Australia, which ordered his release and return to Country on 8 November 1934. The case, which overturned the verdict of the Northern Territory jury and the judge’s death sentence, brought into focus the unfair treatment of Aboriginal people and their rights to fair trials. Shortly after his release Dhakiyarr Wirrpanda disappeared. What happened to him is still a mystery, although it is possible that he was murdered. For background on Dhakiyarr Wirrpanda’s story and court case see for example:
• Dewar, Mickey 2005, 'Dhakiyarr Wirrpanda (1900–1934)', an entry in the Australian Dictionary of Biography, National Centre of Biography, Australian National University at: http://adb.anu.edu.au/biography/dhakiyarr-wirrpanda-12885 accessed on 27 July 2015.
• Dhakiyarr’s case available online on the National Archives of Australia’s website at: http://uncommonlives.naa.gov.au/dhakiyarr-wirrpanda/the-case/dhakiyarrs-... accessed on 8 August 2015.
• Exploring Democracy, Dhaikiyarr Wirrpanda, Museum of Australian Democracy, Old Parliament House, Canberra at: http://explore.moadoph.gov.au/people/dhakiyarr-wirrpanda accessed on 8 August 2015.

Dundalli
Connors, Libby 2005, Dundalli (c. 1820–1855) was an Aboriginal leader born in the Blackall Range north-west of Moreton Bay, Queensland. Part of his story is included in the Australian Dictionary of Biography, National Centre of Biography, Australian National University at http://adb.anu.edu.au/biography/dundalli-12895 accessed on 17 April 2012. This entry is republished on this website at http://nationalunitygovernment.org/content/dundalli-aboriginal-resistanc...

Connors, Libby 2015, Warrior: A Legendary Leader's Dramatic Life and Violent Death on the Colonial Frontier, Allen & Unwin

Lowe, David 1994, 'Dundalli of the Ningy-Ningy,' in Forgotten Rebels: Black Australians Who Fought Back, pp. 27–31, available on Dr Gary Foley's Kooriweb at: heep://www.kooriweb.org/foley/resources/pdfs/127.pdf accessed on 27 July 2015

Jandamarra ("Pigeon")
Jandamarra (c. 1873–1897) was a Bunuba warrior who led an armed insurrection against Europeans who attempting to setup a large station on Bunuba land in the Kimberley region of Western Australia. See for example, the Wikipedia entry at http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jandamarra

Charnley, W Campbell 2010, Pigeon, Hesperian Press, Carlisle, Western Australia

Cormick, Craig 1998, 'Jandamarrajandamarrajandamarra!' in Unwritten Histories, Aboriginal Studies Press, pp. 137–149

Greenwood, Mark 2013, Jandamarra, Allen & Unwin, Crow's Nest, New South Wales

Moran, Kevin 2011, Sand and Stone: Pigeon, Hesperian Press, Carlisle, Western Australia

Pedersen, Howard and Banjo Woorunmurra 1995, Jandamarra and the Bunuba resistance, Magabala Books, Broome, Western Australia

Kickerterpoller (Birch’s Tom, Black Tom, Tom Birch)
Kickerterpoller (d. 1832), a contemporary of Musquito (see below), was a resistance fighter and key leader in the Tasmanian Black War in the 1820s. He also joined George Augustus Robinson’s ‘Friendly Mission’. Less well-known than some of his compatriots, calls have been made for Kickerterpoller to be memorialised. More information on Kickerterpoller can be found in sources such as:
• Pybus, Cassandra 2012, ‘A Self-Made Man’ in Reading Robinson: Companion Essays to George Robinson’s Friendly Mission, Monash University Publishing available online at: http://books.publishing.monash.edu/apps/bookworm/view/Reading+Robinson%3...’s+Friendly+Mission/176/OEBPS/c07.htm accessed on 8 August 2015.
• Ryan, Lyndall 2012, Tasmanian Aborigines: A History Since 1803, Allen & Unwin
• Cox, Robert, ‘Black Tom Birch: Fact and Fiction,’ Tasmanian Historical Research Association, Minutes, 12 June 2012, available online at: http://www.thra.org.au/documents/General_meeting_minutes_June_2012.pdf accessed on 27 July 2015
• Clements, Nicholas 2014, The Black War: Fear, Sex and Resistance in Tasmania, University of Queensland Press

Major
Major (c. 2880s–1908) was an Aboriginal resistance fighter in the Northern Territory. See entry in The Encyclopaedia of Aboriginal Australia, Vol 2, p. 643

Mannalargenna
Mannalargenna was a Tasmanian Aboriginal warrior, leader, skilled diplomat and shaman. He waged war on colonists after sealers betrayed him. (EAA Vol. 2, p.654; Ryan 2012; Clements 2014)

Maulboyheenner
Maulboyheenner was a young Aboriginal warrior from Tasmania (Ryan 2012). Read more about him on this website at http://nationalunitygovernment.org/content/freedom-fighters-lest-we-forget

Montpeliater (Montpelliatta)
Montpeliater was a leader of an intrepid band of Tasmanian Aborigines. More about his life can be found in:
• Ryan, Lyndall 2012, Tasmanian Aborigines: A History Since 1803, Allen & Unwin
• Reynolds, Henry 2013, Forgotten War, NewSouth Publishing
• Clements, Nicholas 2014, The Black War: Fear, Sex and Resistance in Tasmania, University of Queensland Press

Multuggerah
Multuggerah was an Aboriginal leader of the Jagera (Yuggera) nation, of the Lockyer Valley area near Toowoomba, Queensland. He was part of the resistance to European colonisation of the Darling Downs. In December 1843 Multuggerah led the Battle of One Tree Hill (Tabletop) in defence of the hill, a site of spiritual significance to his people.
For more information on Multuggerah and the battle, see for example:
• Ayres, Marie-Louise, ‘A Picture Asks a Thousand Questions,’ National Library Magazine, June 2011, pp. 8–11
• Bottoms, Timothy 2013, Conspiracy of Silence: Queensland’s Frontier Killing-Times, Allen & Unwin, pp.15–16
• Evans, Raymond 2007, A History of Queensland, Cambridge University Press, p. 53
• ‘Plaque honours Aboriginal warrior,’ The Chronicle, Toowoomba, Queensland, 8 December 2005 at: http://www.thechronicle.com.au/news/apn-plaque-honours-aborigina/2728/ accessed on 27 July 2015.
• Tabletop Mountain, Big Ideas, ABC Radio National (RN), Monday 1 July 2013 at: http://www.abc.net.au/radionational/programs/bigideas/table-top-mountain... accessed on 27 July 2015.

Musquito
Musquito (c. 1780–1825) was an Aboriginal resistance leader, born on the north shore of Port Jackson (Sydney), New South Wales. His ancestral country was around Middle Harbour and Manly, reaching north to Broken Bay and north-west to the Hawkesbury River. Musquito was involved in a number of ‘outrages’ around Sydney, was gaoled then sent to Norfolk Island with his friend, Bulldog. After the closure of the island’s penal settlement in 1813, Musquito sailed to Port Dalrymple (Launceston) in Tasmania. Although authorities promised Musquito’s brother, Phillip, that the former would be sent back to Sydney, he was put to tracking convicts in the Tasmanian bush. In December 1824 Musquito and Black Jack were captured and charged with murder, despite not being allowed to give any evidence of their own. Musquito claimed that his execution would be a useless deterrent to other Aboriginal people. He and Black Jack were hanged at Hobart on 25 February 1825. For more information on Musquito see for example:
• R. v. Musquito and Black Jack [1824], Hobart Town Gazette, 6 August 1824 and later, text available online from Macquarie University Law School at: http://www.law.mq.edu.au/research/colonial_case_law/tas/cases/case_index... accessed on 27 July 2015
• Lowe, David 1994, ‘Musquito and the Black Banditti’, in Forgotten Rebels: Black Australians Who Fought Back, pp. 10–14, available online on Dr Gary Foley’s Kooriweb at: http://www.kooriweb.org/foley/resources/pdfs/127.pdf accessed on 27 July 2015
• Parry, Naomi 2005, 'Musquito (1780–1825)', Australian Dictionary of Biography, National Centre of Biography, Australian National University, http://adb.anu.edu.au/biography/musquito-13124 accessed on 27 July 2015.
• –––– 2005, ‘"Hanging no good for blackfellow": looking into the life of Musquito', in Transgressions: critical Australian Indigenous histories, available online at: http://press.anu.edu.au/aborig_history/transgressions/mobile_devices/ch0... accessed on 27 July 2015.

Nemarluck
Nemarluck was an Aboriginal resistance leader born c. 1911 in the Daly River region of the Northern Territory. In the 1930s Aboriginal resistance leaders operated on both sides of the Northern Territory and Western Australian borders.

Horton, David ed 1994, EAA, Vol 2, pp. 770–771

Shaw, Bruce 2000, 'Nemaluck (1911–1940)', Australian Dictionary of Biography, National Centre of Biography, Australian National University at http://adb.anu.edu/biography/nemarluck-11222, accessed on 17 April 2012.

Pemulwuy
Horton, David ed 1994, EAA, Vol. 2. p. 854

Kohen, JL, 2005, Pemulwuy (1750–1802). Pemulwuy was a Dharug warrior, born near Botany Bay on the northern side of the George's River, Sydney, New South Wales. His story is included in the Australian Dictionary of Biography, National Centre of Biography, Australian National University at http://adb.anu.edu/biography/pemulwuy-13147 accessed on 17 April 2012

Tongerlongerter
One of the leading Tasmanian resistance leaders, shot in an arm during an ambush. The shattered limb required amputation above the elbow. (Clements 2014; Reynolds 2013; Ryan 2012)

Tunnerminnerwait (Pevay or Jack Napoleon)
Tunnerminnerwait (also known as Pevay or Jack Napoleon) was born in Tasmania in 1812
Read more about him on this website at http://nationalunitygovernment.org/content/freedom-fighters-lest-we-forget

Windradyne ("Saturday")
Windradyne (1800–1829) was an Aboriginal warrior and resistance leader of the Wiradjuri nation in New South Wales.

Coe, Mary 1989, Windradyne, A Wiradjuri Koorie, Aboriginal Studies Press, Canberra

Horton, David ed 1994, EAA, Vol. 2, pp. 1188–1189

Roberts, David Andrew 2005, Windradyne (1800–1829), Wiradjuri resistance leader. Story included in the Australian Dictionary of Biography, National Centre of Biography, Australian National University at http://adb.anu.edu.au/biography/windradyne-13251, accessed on 17 April 2012

Salisbury, T and PJ Gresser 1971, Windradyne of the Wiradjuri, Sydney

Wikipedia entry on Windradyne is at http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Windradyne

Yagan
Yagan (c. 1795–1833) was an Aboriginal warrior from Western Australia who played a key role in resistance around Perth.

Hasluck, Alexandra 1967, 'Yagan (?–1833)', Australian Dictionary of Biography, National Centre of Biography, Australian National University at http://adb.anu.edu.au/biography/yagan-2826, accessed on 17 April 2012

Munro, Chris 'A Journey of Resistance,' Tracker, Vol 2, Issue 12, April 2012, pp. 54–55

Wikipedia entry on Yagan is at http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Yagan

Northern Territory Intervention

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Concerned Australians is a Melbourne-based group of Australians concerned about injustice, the Northern Territory Intervention and its effects. The group’s website is at: http://www.concernedaustralians.com.au/

Books published about the Intervention by Concerned Australians so far include:

This is What We Said: Australian Aboriginal People Give Their Views on the Intervention, 2010

Walk With Us: Aboriginal Elders Call Out to Australian People to Walk with them in their Quest for Justice, 2011

Harris, Michele ed., A Decision to Discriminate: Aboriginal Disempowerment in the Northern Territory, 2012

Harris, Michele, In the Absence of Treaty, 2013

Film and video

Intervention––2 years on, a film by Steven McGregor, 2010
A number of videos about the Intervention are available on YouTube.

Northern Territory National Emergency Response, Wikipedia entry at http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Northern_Territory_National_Emergency_Response

NT Intervention, accessible online from the Australian Broadcasting Commission’s Indigenous website at:
http://www.abc.net.au/indigenous/special_topics/the_intervention/

Rollback the Intervention
The Intervention Rollback Action Group (IRAG) is made up of volunteers from community groups and organisations that meet regularly to discuss issues that arise from the impact of the Northern Territory Emergency Response (Intervention/Invasion). Website at http://rollbacktheintervention.wordpress.com/

Stop the Intervention or Stop the Intervention Collective, Sydney (STICS) is an open collective of Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal people committed to the repeal of the NT Intervention and the struggle for Aboriginal self-determination. Website at http://stoptheintervention.org/

Working Group on Aboriginal Rights at http://wgar.wordpress.com/
This website includes regular updates on Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander issues including the Northern Territory Intervention.

Sovereignty, land rights, native title and treaty issues

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Australian Institute of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Studies 2003, Treaty––Let’s get it right!: a collection of essays from ATSIC’s treaty think-tank and AIATSIS commissioned authors on the treaty concept, AIATSIS, Canberra

Brennan, Sean, Larissa Behrendt, Lisa Strelein and George Williams 2005, Treaty, The Federation Press, Sydney
Includes chapters on the treaty debate, treaty at the policy and practical level, Indigenous peoples and the law, the question of sovereignty, what can we learn from overseas?, what does native title offer?, models for an Australian treaty and the path forward.

Davis, Megan, ‘Constitutional recognition does not foreclose on Aboriginal sovereignty,’ Indigenous Law Bulletin, Vol. 8, no. 1, July–August 2012, pp. 12–14

Fenley, Julie, ‘The National Aboriginal Conference and the makaratta: sovereignty and treaty discussion 1979–1981’, Australian Historical Studies, Vol. 42, No. 3, September 2011, pp. [372]–389

Foley, Gary, Andrew Schaap and Edwina Howell eds 2013, The Aboriginal Tent Embassy: Sovereignty, Black Power, Land Rights and the State, Routledge, United Kingdom

Gilbert, Kevin 1993, Aboriginal Sovereignty: justice, the law and land, Burrambinga books. Also online at http://www.aiatsis.gov.au/collections/exhibitions/treaty/m0066865_a.html

Gumbert, Marc 1984, Neither Justice Nor Reason: a legal and anthropological analysis of Aboriginal Land Rights, University of Queensland Press

Harris, Michele 2013, In the Absence of Treaty, Concerned Australians, Melbourne

Harris, Stewart 1979, 'It's Coming Yet ...': An Aboriginal Treaty Within Australia Between Australians, The Aboriginal Treaty Committee, Canberra

Korosy, Zsofia, ‘Native title, sovereignty and the fragmented recognition of Indigenous law and custom,’ Australian Indigenous Law Review, Vol. 12, 2008, pp. 81–95

Maddison, Sarah 2009, Black Politics: inside the complexity of Aboriginal political culture, Allen & Unwin

Mansell, Michael, ‘Constitutional report won’t right past wrongs,’ Tracker, Vol. 2, No. 10, February 2012, p. 36, 39

Moreton-Robinson, Aileen 2001 (?), Treaty Talk: Past, Present and Future, The Ngunnawal Lecture Series, University of Canberra

Moreton-Robinson, Aileen ed., 2007, Sovereign Subjects: Indigenous Sovereignty Matters, Allen & Unwin

Reynolds, Henry 1987, The Law of the Land, Penguin Books, Second edition 1992

–––1996, Aboriginal Sovereignty: three nations, one Australia? Allen & Unwin

Strelein, Lisa 2006, Compromised Jurisprudence: native title cases since Mabo, Aboriginal Studies Press

Treaty Republic––Original Sovereigns
http://treatyrepublic.net/

Watson, Irene, 'The Future is Our Past: We Once Were Sovereign and We Still Are,' Indigenous Law Bulletin, November/December 2012, ILB Volume 8, Issue 3, pp. 12–15

Williams, George, 'Does Constitutional Recognition Negate Aboriginal Sovereignty?', Indigenous Law Bulletin, November/December 2012, ILB, Volume 8, Issue 3, pp. 10–11

Wright, Judith 1985, We Call for a Treaty, Fontana, Sydney

Aboriginal sovereignty websites

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Aboriginal Provisional Government 1990, Towards Aboriginal Sovereignty, at http://www.apg.org.au/files/towards.pdf

Aboriginal sovereignty on Wikipedia at http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Australian_Aboriginal_Sovereignty

‘Aboriginal Sovereignty Day Declared,’ Wikinews, Friday 27 January 2006 at http://en.wikinews.org/wiki/Aboriginal_Sovereignty_Day_Declared

Anderson, Michael 2012, ‘Continuing Aboriginal Sovereignty, a statement on the current sovereignty debate–Aboriginal Australia, White Australia, 5 January 2012,’ on Aboriginal Tent Embassy 40th [Anniversary]: 40 Years Stronger–Sovereignty Never Ceded website at http://aboriginaltentembassy40th.com/background/2012/1/7/continuing-abor...

Anderson, Michael, ‘Michael Anderson challenges Professor George Williams and Attorney-General to publicly debate sovereignty,’ Sovereign Union media release 27 May 2013 at http://nationalunitygovernment.org/content/anderson-challenges-prof-geor...

Berg, Sean 2010, ‘Challenging land title issues arising from Aboriginal Sovereignty’, Eliott Johnston memorial lecture, Law Week, South Australia 18 May 2010 and related articles on the Treaty Republic website at http://treatyrepublic.net/content/challenging-land-title-issues-arising-...

Jonas, William 2002, ‘Recognising Aboriginal sovereignty––implications for the treaty process,’ speech by Dr William Jonas AM, Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Social Justice Commissioner, Human Rights and Equal Opportunity Commission, presented at ATSIC National Treaty Conference, Tuesday 27 August 2002 at http://www.hreoc.gov.au/about/media/speeches/social_justice/recognising_...

Mansell, Michael 1998, ‘Back to Basics––Aboriginal Sovereignty,’ on Koorieweb at http://www.kooriweb.org/gst/sovereignty/back-to-basics.html

Muldoon, Paul and Andrew Schaap, 2011[?], ‘Aboriginal sovereignty and the politics of reconciliation: the constituent power of the Aboriginal Embassy in Australia,’ then forthcoming in Environment and Planning D: Society and Space, Special Issue on Citizenship without Community, eds. Vicki Squire and Anharad Closs Stephens at http://www.ilc.unsw.edu.au/sites/ilc.unsw.edu.au/files/Society%20and%20S...

Murrawarri Republic: Who are the Murrawarri? At http://kyliegibbon4.wix.com/murrawarri-republic accessed on 24 July 2013.
See also on this website, information on the first Aboriginal nation to declare independence––the Euahlayi Peoples Republic and the Mbarbaram and Wiradjuri Central West declarations of independence.

Reynolds, Henry 1996, ‘After Mabo, What About Aboriginal Sovereignty?’ in Australian Humanities Review, April 1996, at http://www.australianhumanitiesreview.org/archive/Issue-April-1996/Reyno...

Sovereign Union–National Unity Government, website at http://nationalunitygovernment.org/

Treaty http://www.aiatsis.gov.au/collections/exhibitions/treaty/information.html
An AIATSIS website presenting an overview of the history of the debates about a Treaty.

Treaty Republic website, directed by Aboriginal activist, Robbie Thorpe at http://treatyrepublic.net/

Aboriginal resistance film, songs and video

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Examples of Aboriginal resistance films, songs and video:

Freedom
, Yothu Yindi Album, 1993

Freedom Rides –– 40 Years On, film by Oliver Lawrance, 2011

‘From Little Things Big Things Grow,’ song written by Kev Carmody with Paul Kelly in 1993–from Kev Carmody’s album Bloodlines, about the Gurindji Walkout, led by Vincent Lingiari, at Wave Hill Station, Northern Territory that sparked off the modern land rights movement.

My Survival as an Aboriginal––the story of Essie Coffey, film 1978

Murundak––songs of freedom, Daybreak Films 2011

Ningla-Ana (‘This Our Land’), film, director, Alessandro Cavadini, 1972

‘Thou Shalt Not Steal,’ song from the Pillars of Society album by Kev Carmody, 1988

‘Treaty,’ song on the Tribal Voice album by Yothu Yindi, 1991

‘Treaty 98,’ on the One Blood album by Yothu Yindi, 1998

Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander rights websites

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Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Social Justice website of the Australian Human Rights Commisson at http://www.hreoc.gov.au/social_justice/index.html
The Australian Human Rights Commission advocates for the right of Indigenous Australians and works to promote respect and understanding of these rights among the broader community.

ANTaR (Australians for Native Title and Reconciliation).ANTaR is a national advocacy organization working for justice, rights and respect for Australia’s First Peoples. Website at http://www.antar.org.au/

National Museum of Australia, Collaborating for Indigenous Rights, at http://indigenousrights.net.au/default.asp
Covers collaboration between Aboriginal people and non-Aboriginal people for rights of Aboriginal people from 1930 to 1979. Includes bios on a number of Aboriginal, Torres Strait Islander and other Black activists such as George Abdullah, Faith Bandler, Dooley Bin Bin, Harold Blair, Neville Bonner, Don Brady, Winnie Branson, Josie Briggs, Geraldine Briggs, Ken Brindle, Gordon Briscoe, Charlie Carter, Joyce Clague, Paul Coe, Malcolm Cooper, William Cooper, Vince Copley, Davis Daniels, Dexter Daniels, Jack Davis, Chicka Dixon, Harriet Ellis, Gladys Elphick, Charles Perkins, William Ferguson, Dulcie Flower, Gary Foley, Lupna Giari, Pearl Gibbs, Bert Groves, Alick Jacomos, Jean Jimmy, Vincent Lingiari, Ted Loban, Pincher Manguari, Dadaynga ‘Roy’ Marika, Bob Maza, Lambert and May McBride, Joe McGinness, Bruce McGuinness, Clancy McKenna, John Moriarty, Albert Namatjira, John Newfong, Doug Nicholls, Jacob Oberdoo, Bill Onus, Eric Onus, Gladys O’Shane, Jack Patten, Ted Penny, Harry Penrith (Burnum Burnum), Charles Perkins, Mick Rangiari, Phillip Roberts, Evelyn Scott, Shirley Smith, Roberta Sykes, Margaret Tucker, Alex Vesper, Denis Walker, Kath Walker (Oogeroo Noonucal) and Ella Ware.

United Nations Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples 2007, available for download from http://www.un.org/esa/socdev/unpfii/documents/DRIPS_en.pdf

Australian Human Rights Commission 2010, The Community Guide to the UN Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples, available for download from the commission’s website at http://www.hreoc.gov.au/declaration_indigenous/downloads/declaration_gui...

Yunupingu, Yalmai, 'A Keynote Speaker: Human Rights and Social Justice Award,' 24 June 2014

Activists Legal Assistance and Professional Activism Resources
Activist Rights activistrights.org.au
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Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander media

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(These outlets record the Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander history of Australia as it happens and often include articles or programs on past Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islands’ history)

Australian Broadcasting Commission
ABC Online Indigenous

(Australia’s national broadcaster’s Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander online service.)
http://www.abc.net.au/indigenous/default.htm

Central Australian Aboriginal Media Association (CAAMA)
Set up in 1980 in Alice Springs, Northern Territory. Focus on the social, cultural and economic development of Aboriginal peoples.
Website: http://www.caama.com.au
Street address: 401 Todd Street, Alice Springs, NT 0871
Postal Address: PO Box 2628, Alice Springs, NT 0871
Phone: (08) 8951 9778
Fax: (08) 8951 9717

CAAMA includes:
– CAAMA Music - recording studio and recording label producing Indigenous music
– CAAMA Productions – film and TV production company producing programs about Aboriginal culture, lifestyles and issues
– CAAMA Radio (8KIN FM)
– CAAMA Shop – wholesale and retail distribution of CAAMA products
– Imparja Television (TV) – wide-reaching commercial TV station

First Nations Telegraph - Online Daily News?100% Owned & Operated by Our Mob
http://www.firstnationstelegraph.com/
First Nations Telegraph Pty Ltd
PO Box 6578
CLIFFORD GARDENS Qld 4350
Office: (07) 4630 1010
Free call: 1300 662871
Managing Editor: Stephen Hagan (Kullilli)
Email: editor@firstnationstelegraph.com
Mobile: 0427 262 830

Koorie Mail
(The Fortnightly National Indigenous Newspaper – 100% Aboriginal-owned 100% Self-funded)
http://www.koorimail.com/

Koori Mail
PO Box 117
LISMORE NSW 2480
Australia
Phone: (02) 66 222 666
Fax: (02) 66 222 600
If calling from overseas:
Phone: +61 2 66 222 666
Fax: +61 2 66 222 600
Email: admin@koorimail.com
Editorial: editor@koorimail.com
Advertising: advertising@koorimail.com
Web: www.koorimail.com

National Indigenous Radio Service (NIRS)
http://nirs.org.au/

The National Indigenous Radio Service Limited (NIRS) is a national program distribution service that delivers four radio channels of content produced by First Nations broadcasters via satellite distribution and via the internet.
Operating from a central hub in Brisbane, NIRS receives programs from a majority of the 180+ First Nations broadcasting services across Australia.

National Indigenous Television (NITV)
http://www.nitv.org.au/
NITV news: http://www.sbs.com.au/nitv/nitv-news

National Indigenous Television (NITV) is part of the Special Broadcasting System (SBS) family of free-to-air channels broadcasting across Australia. NITV on SBS Channel 4 provides a nationwide Indigenous television service via cable, satellite and terrestrial transmission means and selected online audiovisual content. The content for these services is primarily commissioned or acquired from the Indigenous production sector.

The National Indigenous Times
http://www.nit.com.au/
Street Address: 255 Hay Street, Subiaco, Perth, Western Australia
Postal Address: PO Box 8217, Subiaco East, WA 6008
Publisher/Editor: Tony Barrass
email: tb@tonybarrass.com
Mobile: 0409 878 337

New South Wales Aboriginal Land Council
Our Land Council, Our Mob, Our Future
e-publication, subscribe at: www.alc.org.au/about-nswalc/our-mob-our-future.aspx

Special Broadcasting Service (SBS) Living Black
http://www.sbs.com.au/shows/livingblack

The Stringer – Independent News, investigative Journalism, independent news media on human rights and social justice.

© Original list compiled by Jane Morrison April 2012. Additions made by other contributors. Updated by Jane Morrison July/August 2013; July/September 2014, March/July 2015, March 2016.

  

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